At the beginning of planting or cutting, the seedlings or ear-catching have no root system and the root system is small, and the water absorption capacity is poor. Although the water demand is small, it requires sufficient water. For example, watering due to drought will cause surface soil compaction, poor air permeability, and unfavorable young Buds emerge, cuttings take root and grow. After applying soil water retaining agent, the soil water retaining agent absorbs water, there is very little physical (leakage, evaporation) water loss, and can repeatedly absorb and supply water for a long time; the soil layer where the seed or cutting root is located is more water and heat It is stable, is conducive to seed germination, rooting and growth of cuttings, and also reduces labor costs. The following describes soil water retention
Application technology of agent in fruit forest seedling cultivation.
1How to use
1.1 Casting in the sowing furrow
When using drill seedlings, open a sowing ditch, apply more small granular or powdered soil water-retaining agent, mix with an appropriate amount of fine soil (conducive to evenly spreading), mix well, spread in the sowing ditch, mix the bottom of the ditch with a narrow hoe Soil, make the soil water-retaining agent evenly distributed in the 7-10cm soil layer at the bottom of the ditch, and then water in the ditch. After the water seeps down, water--times to make the water-retaining agent fully absorb the water, and finally sow and cover the soil. Smaller seeds, such as apples, pears, locust and other seeds can be sowed; large seeds, such as peach, chestnut, walnut and other seeds can be sowed on demand. Apply soil water retention agent 4-5kg/hm2.
1.2 Ground Casting
When spreading seedlings, after leveling the border surface, use the above method to select and treat the soil water-retaining agent and sprinkle it in the border. Use a 2-tooth hook to hoe the border surface 2-3 times to make the water-retaining agent evenly distributed in the 7-10cm soil layer In the middle, use an iron rake to level the surface, water twice to make the soil water-retaining agent absorb enough water, after the water seeps, sow seeds and cover the soil. Applying 5-6kg/hm2 of water-retaining agent is more suitable for small seedlings of paulownia, kiwi fruit, and Fartonia.
1.3 Seed coating (coating) method
Soak the seeds that have been treated by stratification, soaking, and accelerating germination with clean water, and remove them in a sieve to control excess water. Place them in pots, dustpans and other utensils. Use 30-50g powdered water retention agent for 1kg of seeds. Sprinkle it on the wet seeds and move them up and down, so that the seeds can be sowed after they are covered with water-retaining agent. This method is more suitable for sowing and raising seedlings of Guohu, Hawthorn and Jujube.
1.4 Seed mud method
Soil water-retaining agent: mix the soil in a ratio of 1:300-500 and then add water to synthesize a slurry to make the water-retaining agent fully absorb water for use; when seedlings are grown in the drill method, the sowing ditch is opened and the ditch is filled with sufficient water; after soaking and stratification Seeds that have been treated such as sprouting, etc., are dipped in the above-mentioned synthetic mud, sowed in the sowing ditch, and covered with soil. This method is more suitable for sowing and raising seedlings of walnut, ginkgo, apricot and other large seeds. For long-germinated seeds, it is not suitable to claw this method because the sprouts and roots are easily damaged during operation.
1.5 Seed Covering Method
When drilling seedlings by drill sowing, open a sowing ditch, sow the seeds that have been soaked, stratified, and accelerating germination in the sowing ditch: water retention agent: fine soil at a ratio of 1:500 and mix well. Cover the seeds with 100-200g of this mixed soil, then cover about half of the soil (covering the mixed soil), fill the ditch with water to make the water retaining agent fully absorb water, and finally cover the soil. This method is suitable for sowing and raising seedlings of large seeds.
1.6 Cutting ear bag mud method
Soil water-retaining agent: The soil is hydrated at a ratio of 1:300-1:500 to synthesize thick mud, so that the water-retaining agent fully absorbs water and then ready for use: According to the conventional method of cutting seedlings, the ground is prepared and the cutting ditch is opened, and the treated cuttings take root. 4- The 5cm section and the cross section are covered with thick mud with a thickness of 1-2cm; then the cuttings (planting) are placed in the cutting ditch, and the cuttings (planting) are watered.
1.7 Cutting groove casting
According to the conventional cutting seedling raising method, the ground is prepared and the cutting ditch is opened, and the powdery or small glume granular water-retaining agent is mixed with part of the fine soil, and evenly sprinkled in the cutting ditch, and the narrower sickle is used to concave the hook to mix the soil at the bottom of the ditch. Distribute the water-retaining agent evenly in the 7-10cm soil layer at the bottom of the ditch. After mixing, cut the cuttings. The lower section of the cuttings should not exceed the mixed soil layer containing the water-retaining agent. Finally, water the water-retaining agent to absorb enough water. Apply 5-6kg of water retaining agent per 666.7m2.
1.8 Seedling mud method
Soil water-retaining agent: the soil is added with water in the ratio of 1:300-1:500 to synthesize mud. The water-retaining agent fully absorbs water and is ready for use: seedlings, young seedlings, seedlings in the nursery (medicine, branch), digging seedlings, etc., before planting, roots Dip the above synthetic mud and plant it. The water absorption rate is high, and the water absorption rate is fast. It is the first choice of soil water retaining agent for fruit forest seedlings.
2 Determine the appropriate amount of water retaining agent
Soil water-retaining agent is applied to fruit forest nursery, like starch grafting acrylic water-retaining agent suitable for nursery seedlings, water absorption rate is more than 200 times, generally 5-6kg/hm2. However, due to different soil types, natural precipitation, irrigation conditions, etc., the amount of application varies. Dry areas, sandy soils, and barren soils should be applied more appropriately; clay soils, loams with strong water retention and fertility, and areas with a lot of natural rainfall. Where irrigation is convenient, use less. The dosage is also different due to different methods of raising seedlings. For example, the dosage of furrowing method and spreading method is more, while the dosage of coating method and mud method is less.
3 Choose the appropriate application method of water retaining agent
Planting furrow and cutting furrow methods are often used for fruit forest seedling cultivation. Because these two methods use more water-retaining agents and have large water storage capacity, they can supply water to the seedlings for a long time: the water-retaining agents applied are also deeper and are affected by light, heat and dryness. Smaller and long service life. Water-retaining agent should be applied deeply in fruit forest nursery.
When applying soil water-retaining agent, water-retaining agent: soil is generally mixed at a ratio of 300-1000. If mixing is not uniform, the place where the water-retaining agent is concentrated will absorb a lot of water, which will affect the air and heat of the local soil layer, and the local root growth will be affected, even Rotten roots. After applying the water-retaining agent to the soil, do not step on it first, and keep the soil loose. After watering, the water-retaining agent will absorb water and expand with larger gaps.
4 Replenish water in time when the weather is dry
After the soil water retaining agent absorbs and stores irrigation water or natural precipitation, it can continuously supply water for the seedlings. The weather is dry. Generally, it is necessary to irrigate and replenish water for about 20 days (land with a lot of water retaining agent); otherwise, the seedlings will dry out early and affect the growth. The ability of water absorption and water supply fails quickly, shortening the service life. Care should be taken to irrigate seedlings (seed coating method, etc.) where there is less soil water retention agent.
5 Pay attention to the rationality of the mixed use of water retaining agent and fertilizer
Most chemical fertilizers (organic fertilizers) can be mixed with soil water-retaining agents. When applying chemical fertilizers, apply water-retaining agents first, mix well with the soil, and then add chemical fertilizers and mix well, especially for chemical fertilizers containing potassium, calcium, and ammonium plasma. Shi. It cannot be mixed with fertilizers containing divalent metal elements such as zinc, manganese, and magnesium.